al-Nisāʾ (4, 1-28)
  • Quranic text
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يا أيها الناس اتقوا ربكم الذي خلقكم من نفس واحدة وخلق منها زوجها وبث منهما رجالا كثيرا ونساء واتقوا اللـه الذي تساءلون به والأرحام إن اللـه كان عليكم رقيبا ﴿١﴾ وآتوا اليتامى أموالهم ولا تتبدلوا الخبيث بالطيب ولا تأكلوا أموالهم إلى أموالكم إنه كان حوبا كبيرا ﴿٢﴾ وإن خفتم ألا تقسطوا في اليتامى فانكحوا ما طاب لكم من النساء مثنى وثلاث ورباع فإن خفتم ألا تعدلوا فواحدة أو ما ملكت أيمانكم ذلك أدنى ألا تعولوا ﴿٣﴾ وآتوا النساء صدقاتهن نحلة فإن طبن لكم عن شيء منه نفسا فكلوه هنيئا مريئا ﴿٤﴾ ولا تؤتوا السفهاء أموالكم التي جعل اللـه لكم قياما وارزقوهم فيها واكسوهم وقولوا لهم قولا معروفا ﴿٥﴾ وابتلوا اليتامى حتى إذا بلغوا النكاح فإن آنستم منهم رشدا فادفعوا إليهم أموالهم ولا تأكلوها إسرافا وبدارا أن يكبروا ومن كان غنيا فليستعفف ومن كان فقيرا فليأكل بالمعروف فإذا دفعتم إليهم أموالهم فأشهدوا عليهم وكفى باللـه حسيبا ﴿٦﴾للرجال نصيب مما ترك الوالدان والأقربون وللنساء نصيب مما ترك الوالدان والأقربون مما قل منه أو كثر نصيبا مفروضا ﴿٧﴾ وإذا حضر القسمة أولو القربى واليتامى والمساكين فارزقوهم منه وقولوا لهم قولا معروفا ﴿٨﴾ وليخش الذين لو تركوا من خلفهم ذرية ضعافا خافوا عليهم فليتقوا اللـه وليقولوا قولا سديدا ﴿٩﴾ إن الذين يأكلون أموال اليتامى ظلما إنما يأكلون في بطونهم نارا وسيصلون سعيرا ﴿١٠﴾ يوصيكم اللـه في أولادكم للذكر مثل حظ الأنثيين فإن كن نساء فوق اثنتين فلهن ثلثا ما ترك وإن كانت واحدة فلها النصف ولأبويه لكل واحد منهما السدس مما ترك إن كان له ولد فإن لم يكن له ولد وورثه أبواه فلأمه الثلث فإن كان له إخوة فلأمه السدس من بعد وصية يوصي بها أو دين آباؤكم وأبناؤكم لا تدرون أيهم أقرب لكم نفعا فريضة من اللـه إن اللـه كان عليما حكيما ﴿١١﴾ولكم نصف ما ترك أزواجكم إن لم يكن لهن ولد فإن كان لهن ولد فلكم الربع مما تركن من بعد وصية يوصين بها أو دين ولهن الربع مما تركتم إن لم يكن لكم ولد فإن كان لكم ولد فلهن الثمن مما تركتم من بعد وصية توصون بها أو دين وإن كان رجل يورث كلالة أو امرأة وله أخ أو أخت فلكل واحد منهما السدس فإن كانوا أكثر من ذلك فهم شركاء في الثلث من بعد وصية يوصى بها أو دين غير مضار وصية من اللـه واللـه عليم حليم ﴿١٢﴾ تلك حدود اللـه ومن يطع اللـه ورسوله يدخله جنات تجري من تحتها الأنهار خالدين فيها وذلك الفوز العظيم ﴿١٣﴾ ومن يعص اللـه ورسوله ويتعد حدوده يدخله نارا خالدا فيها وله عذاب مهين ﴿١٤﴾واللاتي يأتين الفاحشة من نسائكم فاستشهدوا عليهن أربعة منكم فإن شهدوا فأمسكوهن في البيوت حتى يتوفاهن الموت أو يجعل اللـه لهن سبيلا ﴿١٥﴾ واللذان يأتيانها منكم فآذوهما فإن تابا وأصلحا فأعرضوا عنهما إن اللـه كان توابا رحيما ﴿١٦﴾ إنما التوبة على اللـه للذين يعملون السوء بجهالة ثم يتوبون من قريب فأولئك يتوب اللـه عليهم وكان اللـه عليما حكيما ﴿١٧﴾ وليست التوبة للذين يعملون السيئات حتى إذا حضر أحدهم الموت قال إني تبت الآن ولا الذين يموتون وهم كفار أولئك أعتدنا لهم عذابا أليما ﴿١٨﴾ يا أيها الذين آمنوا لا يحل لكم أن ترثوا النساء كرها ولا تعضلوهن لتذهبوا ببعض ما آتيتموهن إلا أن يأتين بفاحشة مبينة وعاشروهن بالمعروف فإن كرهتموهن فعسى أن تكرهوا شيئا ويجعل اللـه فيه خيرا كثيرا ﴿١٩﴾وإن أردتم استبدال زوج مكان زوج وآتيتم إحداهن قنطارا فلا تأخذوا منه شيئا أتأخذونه بهتانا وإثما مبينا ﴿٢٠﴾ وكيف تأخذونه وقد أفضى بعضكم إلى بعض وأخذن منكم ميثاقا غليظا ﴿٢١﴾ ولا تنكحوا ما نكح آباؤكم من النساء إلا ما قد سلف إنه كان فاحشة ومقتا وساء سبيلا ﴿٢٢﴾ حرمت عليكم أمهاتكم وبناتكم وأخواتكم وعماتكم وخالاتكم وبنات الأخ وبنات الأخت وأمهاتكم اللاتي أرضعنكم وأخواتكم من الرضاعة وأمهات نسائكم وربائبكم اللاتي في حجوركم من نسائكم اللاتي دخلتم بهن فإن لم تكونوا دخلتم بهن فلا جناح عليكم وحلائل أبنائكم الذين من أصلابكم وأن تجمعوا بين الأختين إلا ما قد سلف إن اللـه كان غفورا رحيما ﴿٢٣﴾والمحصنات من النساء إلا ما ملكت أيمانكم كتاب اللـه عليكم وأحل لكم ما وراء ذلكم أن تبتغوا بأموالكم محصنين غير مسافحين فما استمتعتم به منهن فآتوهن أجورهن فريضة ولا جناح عليكم فيما تراضيتم به من بعد الفريضة إن اللـه كان عليما حكيما ﴿٢٤﴾ ومن لم يستطع منكم طولا أن ينكح المحصنات المؤمنات فمن ما ملكت أيمانكم من فتياتكم المؤمنات واللـه أعلم بإيمانكم بعضكم من بعض فانكحوهن بإذن أهلهن وآتوهن أجورهن بالمعروف محصنات غير مسافحات ولا متخذات أخدان فإذا أحصن فإن أتين بفاحشة فعليهن نصف ما على المحصنات من العذاب ذلك لمن خشي العنت منكم وأن تصبروا خير لكم واللـه غفور رحيم ﴿٢٥﴾ يريد اللـه ليبين لكم ويهديكم سنن الذين من قبلكم ويتوب عليكم واللـه عليم حكيم ﴿٢٦﴾واللـه يريد أن يتوب عليكم ويريد الذين يتبعون الشهوات أن تميلوا ميلا عظيما ﴿٢٧﴾ يريد اللـه أن يخفف عنكم وخلق الإنسان ضعيفا ﴿٢٨﴾
1 yā-ˈayyuhā n-nāsu ttaqū rabbakumu llaḏī ḫalaqakum min nafsin wāḥidatin wa-ḫalaqa minhā zawǧahā wa-baṯṯa minhumā riǧālan kaṯīran wa-nisāˈan wa-ttaqū llāha llaḏī tasāˈalūna bihī wa-l ˈarḥāma ˈinna llāha kāna ʿalaykum raqīban 2 wa-ātū l-yatāmā amwālahum wa-lā tatabaddalū l-ḫabīṯa bi-l-ṭayyibi wa-lā taˈkulū amwālahum ilā amwālikum innahū kāna ḥūban kabīran 3 wa-in ḫiftum allā tuqsiṭū fī l-yatāmā fa-nkiḥū mā ṭāba lakum mina l-nisāˈi maṯnā wa-ṯulāṯa wa-rubāʿa fa-in ḫiftum allā taʿdilū fa-wāḥidatan aw mā malakat aymānukum ḏālika adnā allā taʿūlū 4 wa-ātū l-nisāˈa ṣaduqātihinna niḥlatan fa-in ṭibna lakum ʿan šayˈin minhu nafsan fa-kulūhu hanīˈan marīˈan 5 wa-lā tuˈutū l-sufahāˈa amwālakumu llatī ǧaʿala llāhu lakum qiyāman wa-rzuqūhum fīhā wa-ksūhum wa-qūlū lahum qawlan maʿrūfan 6 wa-ābtalū l-yatāmā ḥattā iḏā balaġū l-nikāḥa fa-in ānastum minhum rušdan fa-dfaʿū ilayhim amwālahum wa-lā taˈkulūhā isrāfan wa-bidāran an yakbarū wa-man kāna ġaniyyan fa-l-yastaʿfif wa-man kāna faqīran fa-l-yaˈkul bi-l-maʿrūfi fa-iḏā dafaʿtum ilayhim amwālahum fa-ašhidū ʿalayhim wa-kafā bi-llāhi ḥasīban 7 li-l-riǧāli naṣībun mimmā taraka l-wālidāni wa-l-aqrabūna wa-li-l-nisāˈi naṣībun mimmā taraka l-wālidāni wa-l-aqrabūna mimmā qalla minhu aw kaṯura naṣīban mafrūḍan 8 wa-iḏā ḥaḍara l-qismata ulū l-qurbā wa-l-yatāmā wa-l-masākīnu fa-rzuqūhum minhu wa-qūlū lahum qawlan maʿrūfan 9 wa-l-yaḫša llaḏīna law tarakū min ḫalfihim ḏurriyyatan ḍiʿāfan ḫāfū ʿalayhim fa-l-yattaqū llāha wa-l-yaqūlū qawlan sadīdan 10 inna llaḏīna yaˈkulūna amwāla l-yatāmā ẓulman innamā yaˈkulūna fī buṭūnihim nāran wa-sa-yaṣlawna saʿīran 11 yūṣīkumu llāhu fī awlādikum li-l-ḏakari miṯlu ḥaẓẓi l-unṯayayni fa-in kunna nisāˈan fawqa ṯnatayni fa-lahunna ṯuluṯā mā taraka wa-in kānat wāḥidatan fa-lahā l-niṣfu wa-li-abawayhi li-kulli wāḥidin minhumā l-sudusu mimmā taraka in kāna lahū waladun fa-in lam yakun lahū waladun wa-wariṯahū abawāhu fa-li-ummihi l-ṯuluṯu fa-in kāna lahū iḫwatun fa-li-ummihi l-sudusu min baʿdi waṣiyyatin yūṣī bihā aw daynin ābāˈukum wa-abnāˈukum lā tadrūna ayyuhum aqrabu lakum nafʿan farīḍatan mina llāhi inna llāha kāna ʿalīman ḥakīman 12 wa-lakum niṣfu mā taraka azwāǧukum in lam yakun lahunna waladun fa-in kāna lahunna waladun fa-lakumu l-rubuʿu mimmā tarakna min baʿdi waṣiyyatin yūṣīna bihā aw daynin wa-lahunna l-rubuʿu mimmā taraktum in lam yakun lakum waladun fa-in kāna lakum waladun fa-lahunna l-ṯumunu mimmā taraktum min baʿdi waṣiyyatin tūṣūna bihā aw daynin wa-in kāna raǧulun yūraṯu kalālatan awi mraˈatun wa-lahū aḫun aw uḫtun fa-li-kulli wāḥidin minhumā l-sudusu fa-in kānū akṯara min ḏālika fa-hum šurakāˈu fī l-ṯuluṯi min baʿdi waṣiyyatin yūṣā bihā aw daynin ġayra muḍārrin waṣiyyatan mina llāhi wa-llāhu ʿalīmun ḥalīmun 13 tilka ḥudūdu llāhi wa-man yuṭiʿi llāha wa-rasūlahū yudḫilhu ǧannātin taǧrī min taḥtihā l-anhāru ḫālidīna fīhā wa-ḏālika l-fawzu l-ʿaẓīmu 14 wa-man yaʿṣi llāha wa-rasūlahū wa-yataʿadda ḥudūdahū yudḫilhu nāran ḫālidan fīhā wa-lahū ʿaḏābun muhīnun 15 wa-llātī yaˈtīna l-fāḥišata min nisāˈikum fa-stašhidū ʿalayhinna arbaʿatan minkum fa-in šahidū fa-amsikūhunna fī l-buyūti ḥattā yatawaffāhunna l-mawtu aw yaǧʿala llāhu lahunna sabīlan 16 wa-llaḏāni yaˈtiyānihā minkum fa-āḏūhumā fa-in tābā wa-aṣlaḥā fa-aʿriḍū ʿanhumā inna llāha kāna tawwāban raḥīman 17 innamā l-tawbatu ʿalā llāhi li-llaḏīna yaʿmalūna l-sūˈa bi-ǧahālatin ṯumma yatūbūna min qarībin fa-ulāˈika yatūbu llāhu ʿalayhim wa-kāna llāhu ʿalīman ḥakīman 18 wa-laysati l-tawbatu li-llaḏīna yaʿmalūna l-sayyiˈāti ḥattā iḏā ḥaḍara aḥadahumu l-mawtu qāla innī tubtu l-āna wa-lā llaḏīna yamūtūna wa-hum kuffārun ulāˈika aʿtadnā lahum ʿaḏāban alīman 19 yā-ayyuhā llaḏīna āmanū lā yaḥillu lakum an tariṯū l-nisāˈa karhan wa-lā taʿḍulūhunna li-taḏhabū bi-baʿḍi mā ātaytumūhunna illā an yaˈtīna bi-fāḥišatin mubayyinatin wa-ʿāširūhunna bi-l-maʿrūfi fa-in karihtumūhunna fa-ʿasā an takrahū šayˈan wa-yaǧʿala llāhu fīhi ḫayran kaṯīran 20 wa-in aradtumu stibdāla zawǧin makāna zawǧin wa-ātaytum iḥdāhunna qinṭāran fa-lā taˈḫuḏū minhu šayˈan a-taˈḫuḏūnahū buhtānan wa-iṯman mubīnan 21 wa-kayfa taˈḫuḏūnahū wa-qad afḍā baʿḍukum ilā baʿḍin wa-aḫaḏna minkum mīṯāqan ġalīẓan 22 wa-lā tankiḥū mā nakaḥa ābāˈukum mina l-nisāˈi illā mā qad salafa innahū kāna fāḥišatan wa-maqtan wa-sāˈa sabīlan 23 ḥurrimat ʿalaykum ummahātukum wa-banātukum wa-aḫawātukum wa-ʿammātukum wa-ḫālātukum wa-banātu l-aḫi wa-banātu l-uḫti wa-ummahātukumu llātī arḍaʿnakum wa-aḫawātukum mina l-raḍāʿati wa-ummahātu nisāˈikum wa-rabāˈibukumu llātī fī ḥuǧūrikum min nisāˈikumu llātī daḫaltum bihinna fa-in lam takūnū daḫaltum bihinna fa-lā ǧunāḥa ʿalaykum wa-ḥalāˈilu abnāˈikumu llaḏīna min aṣlābikum wa-an taǧmaʿū bayna l-uḫtayni illā mā qad salafa inna llāha kāna ġafūran raḥīman 24 wa-l-muḥṣanātu mina l-nisāˈi illā mā malakat aymānukum kitāba llāhi ʿalaykum wa-uḥilla lakum mā warāˈa ḏālikum an tabtaġū bi-amwālikum muḥṣinīna ġayra musāfiḥīna fa-mā stamtaʿtum bihī minhunna fa-ātūhunna uǧūrahunna farīḍatan wa-lā ǧunāḥa ʿalaykum fī-mā tarāḍaytum bihī min baʿdi l-farīḍati inna llāha kāna ʿalīman ḥakīman 25 wa-man lam yastaṭiʿ minkum ṭawlan an yankiḥa l-muḥṣanāti l-muˈmināti fa-min mā malakat aymānukum min fatayātikumu l-muˈmināti wa-llāhu aʿlamu bi-īmānikum baʿḍukum min baʿḍin fa-nkiḥūhunna bi-iḏni ahlihinna wa-ātūhunna uǧūrahunna bi-l-maʿrūfi muḥṣanātin ġayra musāfiḥātin wa-lā muttaḫiḏāti aḫdānin fa-iḏā uḥṣinna fa-in atayna bi-fāḥišatin fa-ʿalayhinna niṣfu mā ʿalā l-muḥṣanāti mina l-ʿaḏābi ḏālika li-man ḫašiya l-ʿanata minkum wa-an taṣbirū ḫayrun lakum wa-llāhu ġafūrun raḥīmun 26 yurīdu llāhu li-yubayyina lakum wa-yahdiyakum sunana llaḏīna min qablikum wa-yatūba ʿalaykum wa-llāhu ʿalīmun ḥakīmun 27 wa-llāhu yurīdu an yatūba ʿalaykum wa-yurīdu llaḏīna yattabiʿūna l-šahawāti an tamīlū maylan ʿaẓīman 28 yurīdu llāhu an yuḫaffifa ʿankum wa-ḫuliqa l-insānu ḍaʿīfan
O MANKIND! Be conscious of your Sustainer, who has created you out of one living entity, and out of it created its mate, and out of the two spread abroad a multitude of men and women. And remain conscious of God, in whose name you demand [your rights] from one another, and of these ties of kinship. Verily, God is ever watchful over you! (1) Hence, render unto the orphans their posses­sions, and do not substitute bad things [of your own] for the good things [that belong to them], and do not consume their possessions together with your own: this, verily, is a great crime. (2) And if you have reason to fear that you might not act equitably towards orphans, then marry from among [other] women such as are lawful to you - [even] two, or three, or four: but if you have reason to fear that you might not be able to treat them with equal fairness, then [only] one - or [from among] those whom you rightfully possess. This will make it more likely that you will not deviate from the right course. (3) And give unto women their marriage portions in the spirit of a gift; but if they, of their own accord, give up unto you aught thereof, then enjoy it with pleasure and good cheer. (4) And do not entrust to those who are weak of judgment the possessions which God has placed in your charge for [their] support; but let them have their sustenance therefrom, and clothe them, and speak unto them in a kindly way. (5) And test the orphans [in your charge] until they reach a marriage­able age; then, if you find them to be mature of mind, hand over to them their possessions; and do not consume them by wasteful spending, and in haste, ere they grow up. And let him who is rich abstain entirely [from his ward's property]; and let him who is poor partake thereof in a fair manner. And when you hand over to them their possessions, let there be witnesses on their behalf - although none can take count as God does. (6) MEN SHALL have a share in what parents and kinsfolk leave behind, and women shall have a share in what parents and kinsfolk leave behind, whether it be little or much - a share ordained [by God]. (7) And when [other] near of kin and orphans and needy persons are present at the distribution [of inheritance], give them something thereof for their sustenance, and speak unto them in a kindly way. (8) And let them stand in awe [of God], those [legal heirs] - who, if they [themselves] had to leave behind weak offspring, would feel fear on their account - and let them remain conscious of God, and let them speak [to the poor] in a just manner. (9) Behold, those who sinfully devour the posses­sions of orphans but fill their bellies with fire: for [in the life to come] they will have to endure a blazing flame! (10) CONCERNING [the inheritance of] your children, God enjoins [this] upon you: The male shall have the equal of two females’ share; but if there are more than two females, they shall have two-thirds of what [their parents] leave behind; and if there is only one daughter, she shall have one-half thereof. And as for the parents [of the deceased], each of them shall have one-sixth of what he leaves behind, in the event of his having [left] a child; but if he has left no child and his parents are his [only] heirs, then his mother shall have one-third; and if he has brothers and sisters, then his mother shall have one-sixth after [the deduction of] any bequest he may have made, or any debt [he may have incurred]. As for your parents and your children - you know not which of them is more deserving of benefit from you: [therefore this] ordinance from God. Verily, God is all-knowing, wise. (11) And you shall inherit one-half of what your wives leave behind, provided they have left no child; but if they have left a child, then you shall have one-quarter of what they leave behind, after [the deduction of] any bequest they may have made, or any debt [they may have incurred]. And your widows shall have one-quarter of what you leave behind, provided you have left no child; but if you have left a child, then they shall have one-eighth of what you leave behind, after [the deduction of] any bequest you may have made, or any debt [you may have incurred]. And if a man or a woman has no heir in the direct line, but has a brother or a sister, then each of these two shall inherit one-sixth; but if there are more than two, then they shall share in one-third [of the inheritance], after [the deduction of] any bequest that may have been made, or any debt [that may have been incurred], neither of which having been intended to harm [the heirs]. [This is] an injunction from God: and God is all-knowing, forbearing. (12) These are the bounds set by God. And whoever pays heed unto God and His Apostle, him will He bring into gardens through which running waters flow, therein to abide: and this is a triumph supreme. (13) And whoever rebels against God and His Apostle and transgresses His bounds, him will He commit unto fire, therein to abide; and shameful suffering awaits him. (14) AND AS FOR those of your women who become guilty of immoral conduct, call upon four from among you who have witnessed their guilt; and if these bear witness thereto, confine the guilty women to their houses until death takes them away or God opens for them a way [through repentance]. (15) And punish [thus] both of the guilty parties; but if they both repent and mend their ways, leave them alone: for, behold, God is an acceptor of repentance, a dispenser of grace. (16) Verily, God's acceptance of repentance relates only to those who do evil out of ignorance and then repent before their time runs out: and it is they unto whom God will turn again in His mercy - for God is all-knowing, wise; (17) whereas repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour and then say, "Behold, I now repent"; nor from those who die as deniers of the truth: it is these for whom We have readied grievous suffering. (18) O YOU who have attained to faith! It is not lawful for you to [try to] become heirs to your wives [by holding onto them] against their will; and neither shall you keep them under constraint with a view to taking away anything of what you may have given them, unless it be that they have become guilty, in an obvious man­ner, of immoral conduct. And consort with your wives in a goodly manner; for if you dislike them, it may well be that you dislike something which God might yet make a source of abundant good. (19) But if you desire to give up a wife and to take another in her stead, do not take away anything of what you have given the first one, however much it may have been. Would you, perchance, take it away by slandering her and thus committing a manifest sin? (20) And how could you take it away after you have given yourselves to one another, and she has received a most solemn pledge from you? (21) AND DO NOT marry women whom your fathers have previously married - although what is past is past: this, verily, is a shameful deed, and a hateful thing, and an evil way. (22) Forbidden to you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and your aunts paternal and maternal, and a brother's daughters, and a sister's daughters; and your milk-mothers, and your milk-sisters; and the mothers of your wives; and your step-daughters - who are your foster children - born of your wives with whom you have consummated your marriage; but if you have not consummated your marriage, you will incur no sin [by marrying their daughters]; and [forbidden to you are] the spouses of the sons who have sprung from your loins; and [you are forbidden] to have two sisters [as your wives] at one and the same time - but what is past is past: for, behold, God is indeed much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace. (23) And [forbidden to you are] all married women other than those whom you rightfully possess [through wedlock]: this is God's ordinance, binding upon you. But lawful to you are all [women] beyond these, for you to seek out, offering them of your possessions, taking them in honest wedlock, and not in fornication. And unto those with whom you desire to enjoy marriage, you shall give the dowers due to them; but you will incur no sin if, after [having agreed upon] this lawful due, you freely agree with one another upon anything [else]: behold, God is indeed all-knowing, wise. (24) And as for those of you who, owing to cir­cumstances, are not in a position to marry free believing women, [let them marry] believing maidens from among those whom you rightfully possess. And God knows all about your faith; each one of you is an issue of the other. Marry them, then, with their people's leave, and give them their dowers in an equitable manner - they being women who give themselves in honest wedlock, not in fornication, nor as secret love-companions. And when they are married, and thereafter become guilty of immoral conduct, they shall be liable to half the penalty to which free married women are liable. This [permission to marry slave-girls applies] to those of you who fear lest they stumble into evil. But it is for your own good to persevere in patience [and to abstain from such marriages]: and God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace. (25) God wants to make [all this] clear unto you, and to guide you onto the [righteous] ways of life of those who preceded you, and to turn unto you in His mercy: for God is all-knowing, wise. (26) And God wants to turn unto you in His mercy, whereas those who follow [only] their own lusts want you to drift far away from the right path. (27) God wants to lighten your burdens: for man has been created weak. (28) -Asad Translation-